It was half past eight in the morning when we landed at Laxmipur, a small town in the Koraput district of south Odisha. Laxmipur is about 22 km from Narayanpatna, home to one of India's fierce tribal movements led by the Chasi Mulia Adivasi Sangh (CMAS).
On the way we passed two Border Security Force (BSF) camps–one at Palur between Laxmipur and Narayanpatna, and the other at Podapadar, the striking ground of the CMAS in 2009. Our guide, Anil Subudhi, a local journalist told us that the BSF personnel stationed at Podapadar would verify our identity and purpose of visit. They might even deny us entry into the forest, which was considered the seat of the conflict between the tribal and non-tribal communities, between the armed forces of the state and left-wing extremists.
We reached Narayanpatna, the block headquarters town after half an hour’s journey, had our bath and started for the villages in the forest.
It was Shivratri day. A few of the BSF personnel were on duty. Most of the others were busy with rituals at the newly built roadside temple near the camp. We were not checked. We moved forward.
Part of the village of Podapadar was in shambles. Broken houses had been further vandalised. The burnt remains of a torched bus were strewn about on the ground. The village continues to remain deserted following an attack by the CMAS in May 8, 2009.
We met Sahadev Parida, a teacher from a nearby school, who had been jailed for being a supporter of the tribal rights movement run by the CMAS. As the polls are imminent, I asked him about the situation in the area and people’s views on the forthcoming elections. “People are not in favour of an election. But, they may participate if someone from their area joins active politics and stands as a candidate,” Sahadev said.
Regarding CMAS leader Nachika Linga, Sahadev added, “It’s he himself who has to decide whether to come to mainstream politics or not. Fighting to liberate the tribal community from the age-old tradition of bonded labour and also to ensure the rights of the tribal people over their lands and natural resources, Nachika Linga, the leader of the movement, is often referred to as a modern-day Spartacus.
Not far from Podapadar is Bhaliaput, the village Nachika Linga comes from. It is under the radar of the armed forces and the local police. The roads reaching this village are relatively better but commuting in the interior of the villages is really challenging because of the condition of the terrain and the lack of good roads.
The scenic terraced green fields on hill slopes bear testimony to the agrarian activities of the tribal communities living in the forest. They grow paddy in the usual kharif season and a variety of millet during winter.
Although these fields are cultivated by the tribals, they have no right over them. Even though many laws like the PESA (Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas) and the FRA (Forest Rights Act) have been formulated to give the tribals their rights, the defined objectives are yet to be achieved.
In 2011, during the negotiations for the release of the abducted Collector of Malkangiri, R. Vineel Krishna, the Odisha government agreed to hand over the land rights to the tribals. A committee was formed under the leadership of the Revenue Minister to expedite the process, particularly in the Narayanpatna, Bandhugaon and Laxmipur blocks. Three long years have passed and yet nobody knows what steps the committee has taken and how far the process has gone.
After passing three or four tribal hamlets, we reached Talagumandi village. The police and the armed forces consider Talagumandi, which is surrounded by hills, to be the village of several Maoists. Here we met Singari Tadingi, aged 20 or so, who spent ten months in Koraput jail for reasons she never knew.
“I had been on a visit to a relative’s house nearby. The police suddenly raided the place and arrested me from there. I was taken to a BSF camp where I was beaten severely and asked about my links with Maoists and their activities. I denied all the charges they made against me. Still, I was sent to the district headquarter jail in Koraput. After ten months in jail, I was granted bail,” said Singari, whom the police term a dreaded Maoist.
As she has lost her father, Singari is struggling to survive. She shoulders the burden of her family. She starts crying each time she describes the misery her family was subjected to during her days in
“The police termed me a Maoist. My family faced humiliation. They had to run from pillar to post to free me. They had to live a miserable life after I went to jail. Who is going to compensate for that? Why did I have to spend ten months in jail without any reason?” she asks.
Singari’s is not a lone case. We also met Dinu Sirka of Jhodipadarvi llage and Jira Kendruka of Dumsil village. Both were hiding in the village as the police had targeted them by declaring them to be Maoists.
Dinu Sirka was a big farmer engaged in livestock farming and poultry. He used to have 250 cows, 30 goats and over 30 poultry birds. His family supported the movement raised by CMAS to secure the rights of the tribal people. One day, when his brothers were going to Damanjodi-a township that grew after Nalco started its bauxite mining-to sell groundnuts, the police picked them up on the way and
subjected them to severe torture.
subjected them to severe torture.
“They were beaten because we all supported the cause being fought by the CMAS. The police then raided our house and all my cattle, goats and hens were taken away. We came to know that they sold all our animals and birds. We lost everything. They looked for me in order to arrest me. I was afraid and, thus, came to this remote village to avoid a police assault on me,” Dinu said. “Later when I met some people from my village, they told me that the police had declared me a Maoist,” Dinu added.
Jira Kendruka left his village under similar constraints. As the police raided his house in his absence and started beating his 12-year old daughter, alleging that the whole family was engaged in Maoist activities, Jira abandoned his village out of fear.
“We don’t know who is a Maoist and who is not. And, we wonder how the police can consider anybody and everybody dwelling in the forest to be a Maoist? As we live in the forest and gather our livelihood from it we are bound to go into the forests. But, because of such police actions, we are deprived of our own forests,” said Jira in an aggrieved voice. People standing around also supported his arguments.
Initially, the tribal people opposed such acts of the police. But they didn’t get support from anybody in the police or even the administration. Rather, tribal people were taken to camps, put to torture, jailed and had to face trials for years. So, the tribal voice got suppressed and a courageous tribal community had to live in fear in order to avoid illegal and immoral police reprisals that the system
sees as lawful.
sees as lawful.
On the other side, conflict keeps growing in the forests and in the tribal hinterlands. Innocent tribals who just want to live peacefully and with dignity, depending for their livelihood on forest produce and forest lands, are finding themselves sandwiched between the opposing forces involved in the conflict. As the real issues relating to these tribal communities seem to get missed out in the noise and din about tribal empowerment and protection of tribal rights, these tribals are forced to live a life of deprivation and agony.
In such a situation, movements like the CMAS look more relevant than those motivated by any other force or intent.
The conflict over rights can be resolved through discourse instead of applying force and intimidating the tribals. In fact intimidation, irrespective of the source, widens the gap between the communities and the whole system of governance. The approach must be inclusive rather than suppressive. Repeated attempts to suppress the movement may only help it to grow, forcing more and more tribals to adopt a hostile attitude. This tale also present another picture; one about the failure of democracy in ensuring basic rights to the indigenous communities of India.
On my way back, I was carrying the news–perhaps the only good news in recent times–that Nachika Linga, the modern day Spartacus, may go to the tribal people and solicit their opinion about joining mainstream politics in order to raise the issues of tribal rights within a larger political forum.